Day 2 :
- Track 9: Blood Borne and Exposure Control
Track 10: Antimicrobial Chemo Therapy
Track 11: Infection Associated with Intra Vascular Therapy
Track 12: Infection Associated with Urethral Catheters
Track 13: Respiratory Tract Infection Therapy
Track 14: Preventing Gastrointestinal Infection
Track 15: Infection Control in Clinical Practice
Track 16: Micro Organisms and Their Control
Location: Rome, Italy
Medical Acupuncture and Pain Management Clinic
Huang Wei Ling, born in Taiwan, raised in Brazil since the age of one, graduated in medicine in Brazil, specializing in infectious and parasitic diseases, a General Practitioner and Parenteral and Enteral Medical Nutrition Therapist. Once in charge of the Hospital Infection Control Service of the City of Franca's General Hospital, she was responsible for the control of all prescribed antimicrobial medication, and received an award for the best paper presented at the Brazilian Hospital infection Control Congress in 1998.
She was coordinator of both the Infection Control and the Nutritional Support Committee in Sao Joaquim Hospital in Franca, and also worked at the infectious Sexually Transmitted Disease Reference Center. She is the owner of the Medical Acupuncture and Pain Management Clinic, and since 1997 has been presenting her work worldwide concerning the treatment of various diseases using techniques based on several medical traditions around the world.
Statement of the problem: Very few publications provide sound scientific data used to determine which components are essential for Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) programs in terms of effectiveness in reducing the risk of infection. In recent years, a range of regional best practice or policy principles have been developed that address what could be considered as core components of IPC programs. However there remains a major gap in relation to the availability of international best practice principles for core components of IPC programs. The purpose of this study was to show why patients still catch hospital infections despite IPC programs. A better understanding of a variety of theories is needed that could explain the physiopathology of diverse diseases described in the medical past history, which are usually disregarded clinically today. A broader view seems to show the necessity of seeing the patient as a whole; not only focusing on the disease in the prevention of these hospital infections. The methodology used was a review of these theories such as those presented by Hippocrates (“Natural forces within us are the true healers of disease.”), as well as others from oriental medicine, which explain that diseases originate from three factors: external (exposure to cold, heat, humidity, wind and dryness), internal (emotional) and dietary. Findings: Having a broader view of the patient as a whole (Yin, Yang, Qi, Blood energy and Heat retention), we can understand better the formation of hospital infection which is a systemic energy reaction of our body undergoing normal hospital treatment. Conclusion: To understand better why a patient is still catching hospital infections, despite these IPC programs, we need to broaden our view observing all emotional, environmental and dietary factors, as well as studying his energy situation at the moment of admittance identifying his risk of hospital infection
Dr Hunt is a sociologist with particular interest in ethnographic and participatory research methods. He previously worked on the Welsh Assembly Government’s Sustainable Health Action Research Programme (SHARP), an action research initiative that focused on health inequalities and community health development. He has combined this with a keen interest in historical sociology and the impact of class and place upon social, cultural and economic life. Dr Hunt has experience of working with quantitative research methods and analysis
Infections present a very real risk of harm and sometimes death within and outside healthcare. In recent years, there have been high profile successes in infection prevention and control, such as the dramatic reductions in MRSA bloodstream infections (which is viewed as one proxy indicator of overall harm) and Clostridium difficile in the UK (Health Protection Agency, 2013; Public Health Wales, 2012). However, healthcare-associated infections (HCAI) continue to occur and continue to present a risk to users of healthcare. The present study describes the ways in which engagement of health workers with infection prevention control strategies and principles, shape and inform organisational patient safety culture within isolation in surgical, medical and admission hospital settings; and vice-versa.
The study adopts a mixed-methods design incorporating quantitative data utilising the Manchester Patient Safety Framework (MaPSaF). MaPSaF assists us in seeing the levels of patient safety culture maturity in isolation settings at four district general hospitals, in one health board in Wales, UK. These data were supplemented by ethnographic case studies, involving qualitative semi-structured interviews and periods of observation on hospital wards, thus providing a more in-depth understanding of process, experience and outcomes, from the perspectives of health workers, isolated patients and their significant others.
All health workers should take ownership and responsibility for IPC. This study offers new understandings of the meaning of ownership for health workers; of the ways in which IPC is promoted, of how IPC teams operate as new challenges arise, how their effectiveness is assessed and of the positioning of IPC within the broader context of organisational patient safety culture, within hospital isolation settings
Ahfad University for Women
Atika Swar has expertise in community medicine, public health surveillance, research and great passion for infection prevention and control. Has several years of expertise in the field of public health and currently building expertise in infection prevention and control. Very interested in estimating the burden of hospital acquired infections so as to contribute in prevention and reduction of their burden. Through the relevant expertise and interest, this research was conducted to establish an applicable and feasible methodology for assessment of surgical site infection rates and risk factors for low income settings like Sudan. It was among the first researches conducted in this field using similar methodology
Surveillance for SSI is an important element of IPC programs. This research aimed at studying SSI among pediatric surgeries by active direct surveillance using NNIS for prediction.
A nested case control study conducted following establishing surveillance at the department of pediatric surgery. Case definition and tools were modified from the CDC - SSI surveillance guidelines. Patients were followed throughout admission period and post discharge for one month using phone calls and follow up visits. The incidence rates of SSI were measured and the associated factors were investigated.
During the 3 month period of the study, 191 surgical patients were admitted and (83%) have undergone surgeries and accordingly, the cumulative incidence rate was (16.4%). Among the components of NNIS risk index, contaminated surgical wounds and the ASA classification were significantly associated with the highest rate of infection with (P value of 0.01- 0.006) respectively. Cumulatively, the NNIS risk index was also associated with SSI and it was a good tool for prediction of SSI (P value: 0.02). Major surgical operations constituted the highest rates of infections and it was found that patients who stayed for 3-5 days post operatively were at higher risk of developing SSI. Using logistic regression for multivariate analysis, the test was highly significant and indicated that only sex and duration of post operative stay were having a great effect on developing SSI.
SSI rate was high and active direct surveillance with post discharge follow up was a feasible tool for estimating the burden and investigating the associated risk factors. The NNIS risk index was useful for prediction of SSI. It is important to integrate admission follow up with post discharge follow up SSI surveillance
University of science and Technology Nyanza Province
Redemptah Yeda has her expertise in enteric pathogens, in-vitro malaria culture, sensitivity testing, molecular assays and analysis. She has 5 years of experience in research from centre of disease control (CDC) on enteric work and malaria experience from Walter Reed Project (WRP). Currently am a Master of Science student in Epidemiology and Biostatistics
Statement of the Problem: Diarrhea is preventable and treatable by early recognition of dehydration, increased fluids, breastfeeding and timely treatment. Despite the advances to understand management and pathogenesis, globally it’s estimated that diarrhea accounts for 1.5 million deaths annually. 800,000 children die annually in sub-Saharan Africa. In Kenya, infectious diseases are on the rise due to poverty, illiteracy, inadequate safe drinking water and poor sanitation Flood prone areas have high incidence of diarrhea. However, there is no active surveillance to monitor the incidence and also understand the effect of seasons on the incidence. No study has been carried out on the preparedness of the health facilities for the treatment of Diarrhea. The purpose of this study: To investigate the incidence and preparedness for treatment of diarrhea in epidemic prone floods areas in Kisumu County. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: This was a retrospective study come across sectional study. A key informative interview tool was used to collect data among community health workers and the hospital leads. A conceptual frame work was used to focus on the interaction between incidence and mortality with relation to environment. Findings: Diarrhea is common among the adults compared to other age categories. Conclusion & Significance: Despite the challenges in controlling diarrhea, adults experience more cases. Over the last 20 years diarrhea studies have mainly on the under five However, there is limited information on the epidemiology of diarrhea among adults in sub-Saharan Africa. Recommendations Research is required to establish scientific models to predict diarrhea outbreaks
University of Buea
Ndabong Michael was born on March 19, 1993 at Fondera of the Republic of Cameroon. I am a 4th year medical student at the University of Buea and currently carrying out research work on HIV/AIDS in West Africa
Some degree of interaction has been demonstrated recently between HIV/AIDS and falciparum malaria co-infection in studies carried out in certain parts of Africa, although with conflicting results. However, not much has been done in Cameroon. In order to investigate the interaction, a clinical and laboratory study was carried out in the urban town of Yaoundé the capital city of Cameroon on 480 subjects (15-49 years of age) from March – September, 2015.
Information on the knowledge of practices and attitudes towards both infections was also obtained. Analysis of the questionnaire indicated that participants generally had poor knowledge on HIV and malaria. The prevalence of malaria, HIV and co-infection was 78.8%, 11.7% and 7.9% respectively. The mean temperature of co-infected patients (37.5± 0.007) was higher compared with that of patients infected with HIV (36.7± 0.13). Co-infected patients were significantly more anaemic (t=2.275, p=0.026) and had low red blood cell counts (t=-2.681, p=0.001) than those with mono-infections. The mean parasite density was higher in co-infected patients (1630.97± 231.02) when compared with patients solely diagnosed with malaria (1217.44±67.07) (x2=7.65, p=0.0251). WBC count was lower in co-infected patients compared with patients infected with malaria or HIV only (x2=2.24, p=0.488). The mean CD4 count in co-infected subjects (317.94± 45.00cells/mm3) was lower than in those having HIV only (321.37±24.63cells/mm3), but this difference was not statistically significant (t=-1.521, p=0.265). The follow-up mean CD4 count (350.11 ±30.34) in co-infected patients increased compared with the initial count (31.6±17.82)(x2=-1.613, =0.069). The mean parasite density (109.09±41.08/µl) for co-infected patients after follow-up was significantly lower than the initial value (1630.79±23.102/µl) (t=6.12, p<0.001). Therefore HIV and malaria co-infection in the study site was generally associated with anaemia, high fever, high parasite density, lower RBC and WBC count and reduced CD4 counts