Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 13th World Congress on Infection Prevention and Control Rome, Italy.

Day 1 :

Keynote Forum

Waleed A. Mazi

King Abdul Aziz Specialist Hospital
Saudi Arabia

Keynote: Strategies in developing an Effective Infection Prevention and Control Program
Infection Prevention 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Waleed A. Mazi photo

Waleed A. Mazi is a Regional Director for Infection Prevention and Control, Taif – Saudi Arabia, and also worked in Philosophy of Medical Science, Clinical Microbiology in Sweden. He also Became Infection Prevention and Control Director, King Abdul Aziz Specialist Hospital – Taif, Saudi Arabia, and published many International articles on prevention of central line –associated bloodstream infection, WHO- Hand Hygiene implementation program, prevention sharp injuries in healthcare settings and molecular genotyping for epidemiological purposes and also participated in the Poster and oral presentations in many international conferences


Infection prevention and control programs involves everyone; the patient, healthcare workers, and visitors. In order to maintain a health and safe environment, any effective strategy must understand that you are dealing with people with different languages, religions, nationalities and cultural attitudes. Therefore, preventionists should have an effective ability to communicate new skills, and to encourage and motivate people involved. Plus, an ability to address issues and flawed implementation habits that have formed historically within the organization.

Based on my local experience in Taif, Saudi Arabia, organizations should believe  strongly in their value systems and in their appropriate standards in the clinical environment. These rules should become not just guidelines but “organizational law”. Zero tolerance of healthcare associated infections can be achievable for MOH hospitals by following the SHEA/IDSA practice guidelines and setting them as applicable standards or “laws”. For example, we observed 60% reduction of central-line associated bloodstream infection and achieved to NHSN 50 percentile of catheter associated urinary tract infections in 2012. Also, there is increasing evidence, that international or national accreditation programs can play a vital role in healthcare service improvement. Infection control auditing compliance rate results in hospital standards on infection control have increased from 76% to 86% during 2017

  • Track 1: Infection Prevention, Control and Cure
    Track 2: Infection Control Procedures
    Track 3: Immunizations
    Track 4: Epidemiology and Infection Control
    Track 5: Microbial Pathogenesis and Virulence
    Track 6: Hospital Infections and Epidemiology
    Track 7: Infection Control in Critical Care
    Track 8: Infection Control in Dialysis Track 9: Blood Borne and Exposure Control
    Track 10: Antimicrobial Chemo Therapy
    Track 11: Infection Associated with Intra Vascular Therapy
    Track 12: Infection Associated with Urethral Catheters
Location: Rome, Italy

Session Introduction

Doris Oberle

Federal Institute for Vaccines and Biomedicines

Title: Adverse events following immunisation with a meningococcal serogroup B vaccine: report from a German passive surveillance system

Doris Oberle is a physician and biostatistician at the pharmacovigilance department of the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, Federal Institute for Vaccines and Biomedicines, Langen, Germany. Her research focuses on the investigation of adverse events following immunisation.  For example, within the scope of a case-control study, she investigated the association between pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccination and narcolepsy in Germany. Doris Oberle is also involved in the detection and evaluation of safety signals especially regarding newly approved pharmaceutical products like the meningococcal B vaccine.



Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) can be fatal and may lead to permanent neurological sequelae and disabilities. In January 2013, a novel vaccine against Neisseria meningitis serogroup B, 4CMenB, was approved by the European Medicines Agency. We aimed at evaluating the safety profile of this vaccine.


All adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) reported from Germany since launch on the European market through December 2016 were reviewed and analysed.


Through December 2016, a total of 664 individual case safety reports (ICSR) notifying 1960 AEFI were received. A majority of vaccinees were children aged 2 to 11 years (n=280, 42.2%) as well as infants and toddlers aged 28 days to 23 months (n=170, 25.6%). General disorders and administrations site conditions was the system organ class (SOC) with the majority of AEFI (n=977, 49.8%) followed by the SOCs nervous system disorders (n=249, 12.7%) and skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders (n=191, 9.7%). Screening for immune-mediated and neurological diseases did not raise any safety signal in terms of an increased proportional reporting ratio (PRR).


The safety profile described in the summary of product characteristics, in general, is confirmed by data from spontaneous reporting. No safety concerns were identified.

Huang Wei Ling

Medical Acupuncture and Pain Management Clinic

Title: Can Hospital Osteomyelitis Be Treated Without the Use of Antibiotics?

Huang Wei Ling, born in Taiwan, raised in Brazil since the age of one, graduated in medicine in Brazil, specializing in infectious and parasitic diseases, a General Practitioner and Parenteral and Enteral Medical Nutrition Therapist. Once in charge of the Hospital Infection Control Service of the City of Franca's General Hospital, she was responsible for the control of all prescribed antimicrobial medication, and received an award for the best paper presented at the Brazilian Hospital infection Control Congress in 1998.

She was coordinator of both the Infection Control and the Nutritional Support Committee in Sao Joaquim Hospital in Franca, and also worked at the infectious Sexually Transmitted Disease Reference Center. She is the owner of the Medical Acupuncture and Pain Management Clinic, and since 1997 has been presenting her work worldwide concerning the treatment of various diseases using techniques based on several medical traditions around the world.


Statement of the problem:  As we know osteomyelitis is a bone infection which can reach a bone by traveling through the bloodstream or spreading from nearby tissue. It can also begin in the bone itself if an injury exposes it to germs. Once considered an incurable condition, osteomyelitis can sometimes be successfully treated today by surgery to remove parts of the bone that have died and then with strong antibiotics. (Mayo) The purpose of this study was to show why the treatment of osteomyelitis is so difficult and in most cases incurable. However to improve chances of cure, we need to look at the patient in his entirety, and associate other theories that can be found within other traditions, and not only focus on the infected area. The methodology used was the presentation of two case reports, of which the first showed an infection resulting from knee fracture surgery done after a motorcycle accident that had been treated by the use of a large spectrum of antibiotics without any improvement. The second case was another hospital osteomyelitis after an exposed tibia fracture also after a motorcycle accident which had been treated profusely with antibiotics with any improvement. Findings: Both cases were treated successfully taking out all the anti-inflammatory and antibiotic drugs, and then treated by changing diet, balancing the Yin, Yang, Qi, Blood energy and removing heat retention following the theories of Oriental Medicine. In these two cases, the condition that was maintaining the symptoms of infection was exactly the aggressive use of antibiotics. Conclusion: The treatment of osteomyelitis showed in this study, demonstrated to us that we need to see the patient and not only the disease, to treat adequately the symptoms presented by the patient, and both cases were successfully treated without the use of antibiotics


Yong Yang has completed his PhD at 2007 from National University of Singapore. He is the director of Epidemiology Department of a large tertiary care hospital in Singapore. He has strong experience in epidemiological study with the usage of hospital discharge database. He has conducted hospital epidemiological and clinical research on chronic diseases and infection disease using the hospital discharge database for the past 10 years. He is now developing a comprehensive hospital discharge database, which may be used to conduct epidemiological research in various fields. He has published more than 30 papers in reputed journals


Diabetics Mellitus (DM) has been associated with increased risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). However, information about the extent and risk factors for TB among Asian diabetic patients is scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the rate of TB in patients with DM, and investigate the effect of DM on TB using hospital administrative database. This is an historical cohort study of hospital discharge database from 2004 to 2015 to identify cases with DM and TB using International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 9/10th Revision, Australian Modification (ICD-9/10-AM) codes. Of 406751 hospitalized patients, 80493 (19.8%) patients had DM and 2358 (0.6%) patients had TB. Patients with DM had a significantly higher rate of TB (0.71% vs. 0.55%, p<0.001) compared to patients without DM. This higher rate was only present in the pulmonary TB group (0.62% vs. 0.44%, p<0.001) but not in the extrapulmonary TB group (0.11% vs. 0.08%, p=0.053). Logistic regression analyses showed that DM was a significant and independent predictor of TB (odds ratio 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.3, p<0.001) after adjustment for factors such as age, gender, ethnicity, admission class, nutritional deficiency, HIV infection, and other comorbid conditions. In conclusion, DM patients were found to have higher rates of TB in this group of Asian patient population. Active screening for latent TB should be considered for DM patients

Hanadi Al Salmi

Assistant Director
King Faisal Specialist Hospital &Research Center
Saudi Arabia

Title: Infection Control Measures to Reduce Surgical Site Infections after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

Hanadi Salman Al-Salmi Recently holds the position of Assistant Director of Infection Control and Hospital in Epidemiology at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, and a member of the Makkah Region HealthCare Council, Team Leader PCI Standard for Joint Commission Accreditation. At the same time she has done 5 publications in collaboration with different departments and personnel such as: Risk Factors for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

Infection among Healthcare Personnel, CDC, EID Journal, Volume 22, November 2016, Risk Factors for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection Among Healthcare Personnel" to the New England Journal of Medicine,Itemizing the Bundle: Achieving and Maintaining “ZERO” Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection For Over A Year in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Saudi Arabia, AJIC and Taking Compliance in Hand – Hand Hygiene and Importance of Education, EMH Magazine UK.



Surgical site infections (SSI) is a preventable and devastating complication of cardiac surgery that is associated with significant morbidity. Unfortunately, the reported SSI rate at our centre in 2014-2015 ranged from 2.6% to 8.2%; this is above the standardized rate recommended by the National Healthcare Safety Network.


An improvement project team was formed in late 2016 to address the rate of SSI in our centre. In this study, we sought to identify risk factors of CABG SSI by using evidence-based practices in addition to a local approach to solve the problem. We performed a root-cause analysis to identify areas for potential improvement. Data collected included a process map of the pre-operative, intra-operative, and post-operative factors that might contribute to SSI risk. In addition, we collected data on patient-related factors, hygiene practice in the operating room, operating room traffic, and compliance to the SSI bundle of care. We used the DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control) method to improve our CABG-SSI rate.

The root cause analysis identified significant weaknesses in the compliance to the bundle of care of SSI prevention, including:

High blood glucose (Pre, Intra and Post-operative in patients with diabetes and those without it)

Normothermia was not maintained (Pre, Intra and Post-operative)

Noncompliance with chlorhexidine gluconate pre-operative shower

Noncompliance with the timely administration of the first and second dose of pre-operative antibiotics

Noncompliance with the appropriate dosing for pre-operative antibiotics


Improvement in compliance with the above noted gaps resulted in a decreased incidence of SSI among patients with post-coronary artery bypass grafting for 5 consecutive months.


CABG SSI is a preventable complication. Using evidence-based practice and structured problem solving may potentially identify risk factors. Focusing on solving the right patient process and visually representing the problem will help in identifying the potential solutions, improving quality-of-care, and reducing cost.



Dr Hunt is a sociologist with particular interest in ethnographic and participatory research methods.  He previously worked on the Welsh Assembly Government’s Sustainable Health Action Research Programme (SHARP), an action research initiative that focused on health inequalities and community health development.  He has combined this with a keen interest in historical sociology and the impact of class and place upon social, cultural and economic life.  Dr Hunt has experience of working with quantitative research methods and analysis



Infections present a very real risk of harm and sometimes death within and outside healthcare.  In recent years, there have been high profile successes in infection prevention and control, such as the dramatic reductions in MRSA bloodstream infections (which is viewed as one proxy indicator of overall harm) and Clostridium difficile in the UK (Health Protection Agency, 2013; Public Health Wales, 2012).  However, healthcare-associated infections (HCAI) continue to occur and continue to present a risk to users of healthcare.  The present study describes the ways in which engagement of health workers with infection prevention control strategies and principles, shape and inform organisational patient safety culture within isolation in surgical, medical and admission hospital settings; and vice-versa.

Research Methods:

The study adopts a mixed-methods design incorporating quantitative data utilising the Manchester Patient Safety Framework (MaPSaF).  MaPSaF assists us in seeing the levels of patient safety culture maturity in isolation settings at four district general hospitals, in one health board in Wales, UK.  These data were supplemented by ethnographic case studies, involving qualitative semi-structured interviews and periods of observation on hospital wards, thus providing a more in-depth understanding of process, experience and outcomes, from the perspectives of health workers, isolated patients and their significant others.


All health workers should take ownership and responsibility for IPC.  This study offers new understandings of the meaning of ownership for health workers; of the ways in which IPC is promoted, of how IPC teams operate as new challenges arise, how their effectiveness is assessed and of the positioning of IPC within the broader context of organisational patient safety culture, within hospital isolation settings


Asha Hassan is in the final stages of completing her Doctorate in Immunology at the University of Nottingham. She is an individual with an extreme passion for humanitarian aid, particularly within the promotion of human welfare to eliminate vaccine preventable infectious diseases, in countries with poor public health provisions. Her current Ph.D. research focus is the epidemiology of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD’s), particularly Necator americanus, with a focus on the rational design of an innovative and more efficient intervention strategy against vaccine preventable NTD’s.

Outside of research, Asha has worked extensively with a variety of organizations and is due to be presenting her research at the 4th international conference of Parasitology (Prague, Czech Republic) and the 11th annual NTD conference (Nairobi, Kenya)


Despite the profound health implications of Necator americanus (N. americanus) infection in humans, many aspects of its interaction with the host immune system are poorly understood. In this context, we studied the direct effects of N. americanus larvae (L3) on the phenotype and function of human dendritic cells (DCs). For the first time our data show that L3 N. americanus larvae exsheathed in the presence of DCs and sequestered the immune cells onto the discarded cuticle sheath. Intriguingly, bystander DCs had negligible interaction with the emerging larvae, alluding to a disparity between the surface chemistry of the larval sheath and its cuticle. Our data also suggest that the interaction between DCs and larvae is mediated via C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) as evidenced by an inhibition in DC sequestration on the larvae cuticle after blocking DC-SIGN (dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 grabbing non-integrin) or MR (mannose receptor).

Additionally, DCs incubated with viable axenic larvae exhibited an immature phenotype as evidenced by the low expression of the maturation markers CD80, CD83, CD86, CD40, andHLA-DR. However, DCs maintained their ability to acquire a mature phenotype in response to LPS. Cytokine expression by DCs stimulated with the larvae was comparable to untreated DC,with a statistical significance in contrast to LPS treated DCs (p≤0.029 IL-6, 8 and 10). DCs co-stimulated with LPS and N. americanus exhibited an overall suppression of anti- and pro-nflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-12). Conclusively, mature DCs lyse the parasite, which is thought to be mediated through DC modification of cytokine secretions in the microenvironment via paracrine signalling to directly eliminate and lyse the pathogen.These data provide new insights into early immunological events at the interface of DCs and N. americanus larvae and could explain how L3 evade immunity upon initial interaction with ntigen presenting cells; an essential measure for disease prevention, which will be published later this year


Alice Njihia working as a Senior Assistant Chief Nurse in Internal Medicine department in Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital, Kenya, and have published many articles based on Infection Prevention and Control methods and also worked as Assistant Chief Nurse in Accident and Emergency Department  


Introduction: Needle stick injuries (NSI) are preventable global occupational hazards which are quite prevalent among Health Care Workers (HCW) who are pillars of Health Care Systems. The NSI can easily result to blood borne infections such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The infections have bad outcomes to the HCW such as long term illness, disability and even death. Health care workers optimal health is essential for efficient delivery of health services

Objectives: To determine the prevalence and response to NSI among Health Care Workers working at Kenyatta National Hospital. 

Methodology: The overall objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and response to needle stick injuries among HCW working at KNH. The study design was cross-sectional descriptive while data was collected by quantitative and qualitative methods. The study population was 1394 HCW who performed invasive patient procedures from where a sample of 331 was determined. Data was collected for a period of one month by self-administered structured questionnaires and was analysed by SPSS version 20.0. Chi Square was used to test association and relationship between independent and dependent variables. The findings were presented in frequencies, proportions, pie charts, tables and graphs. The expected benefits of the study findings were to identify gaps in prevalence and response to NSI.

Results: The results showed that 151(45.6%) respondents experienced NSI in their entire career while 62 (41.1%) experienced NSI in the last one year. The incidence rate was 2 NSI per HCW per year. Majority of the HCW got one NSI in both life time 78(51.7%) while in the last one year was 52(83.9%) respectively. Gender, education, profession and experience respectively were statistically associated with lifetime history of NSI, (c2 =4.057, df=1, p<0.05), (c2=12.911, df=5, P<0.05), (c2 =8.404, df =3, p <0 .05), (c2 = 16.819, df=4, P<0.05). Majority 324(97.9%) of the respondents disposed sharps sharp in appropriate sharp bins. Administration of injections was a day to day activity by the majority 91.5% of the HCW of which 20(13.2%) of them got NSI. Majority of HCW (45.7%) got NSI while on night duty. There was statistical significant association between work experience and drawing blood samples, suturing and recapping used needles, (c2 =11.953, df=4, p<0.05), (c2 =13.693,  df=4,  p<0.05 and  c2 =14.069,  df=4, p<0.05) respectively. Age was also related to drawing blood samples (c2 =15.535,  df=3, p<0.05)

 Majority of HCW 98 (65.1%) washed NSI site with water and soap, while only 50% of the HCW reported all NSI. screening for Hepatitis B  and HIV was 36 (58.1%) and  7(11.3%) respectively. Uptake of PEP for HBV was 12 (7.9%) while for HIV was 70(46.4%). Gloves were worn routinely as precautions against NSI by 201(62.6%) of the respondents

Conclusion and Recommendations: The prevalence of NSI was found to be high among HCW at KNH; major activity at time of NSI was administration of injections with low uptake of PEP. Proper handling of needles should also be considered for the staff giving treatment via injections. More research needs to be done on prevalence, response and contributing factors to NSI for informed policy formulation and ways of addressing the gaps.


Atika Swar has expertise in community medicine, public health surveillance, research and great passion for infection prevention and control. Has several years of expertise in the field of public health and currently building expertise in infection prevention and control. Very interested in estimating the burden of hospital acquired infections so as to contribute in prevention and reduction of their burden. Through the relevant expertise and interest, this research was conducted to establish an applicable and feasible methodology for assessment of surgical site infection rates and risk factors for low income settings like Sudan. It was among the first researches conducted in this field using similar methodology


Surveillance for SSI is an important element of IPC programs. This research aimed at studying SSI among pediatric surgeries by active direct surveillance using NNIS for prediction.


A nested case control study conducted following establishing surveillance at the department of pediatric surgery. Case definition and tools were modified from the CDC - SSI surveillance guidelines. Patients were followed throughout admission period and post discharge for one month using phone calls and follow up visits. The incidence rates of SSI were measured and the associated factors were investigated.

During the 3 month period of the study, 191 surgical patients were admitted and (83%) have undergone surgeries and accordingly, the cumulative incidence rate was (16.4%). Among the components of NNIS risk index, contaminated surgical wounds and the ASA classification were significantly associated with the highest rate of infection with (P value of 0.01- 0.006) respectively. Cumulatively, the NNIS risk index was also associated with SSI and it was a good tool for prediction of SSI (P value: 0.02). Major surgical operations constituted the highest rates of infections and it was found that patients who stayed for 3-5 days post operatively were at higher risk of developing SSI. Using logistic regression for multivariate analysis, the test was highly significant and indicated that only sex and duration of post operative stay were having a great effect on developing SSI.

SSI rate was high and active direct surveillance with post discharge follow up was a feasible tool for estimating the burden and investigating the associated risk factors. The NNIS risk index was useful for prediction of SSI. It is important to integrate admission follow up with post discharge follow up SSI surveillance


Tatiana Ometto has her expertise in emergent viruses in wild animals. Her experience involves work on  field with wild animals, sampling, serological and molecular analyses in a BSL3+ laboratory. She has built this expertise after years working in different projects involving different emergent virus in Brazil


West Nile virus (WNV) has emerged in the last three decades as a significant burden to public health and a major veterinary concern in Europe and the Americas. The emergence of WNV, particularly the invasion into North America in 1999 and its subsequent spread throughout the Western Hemisphere, corroborates the view that the virus is moving southward, placing millions of individuals at risk for infection. The first report of WNV activity in South America surfaced in April 2006, when three horses died in Argentina. WNV seropositivity in horses in Brazil was reported in 2009, molecular positivity in two birds was found in 2010/2012 and the first clinical report of a human case occurs in 2014. Although, the established transmission foci in South America unknown. However, Brazil is a large tropical country with major ecological reserves and different biomes that provide ideal conditions for many arboviruses, including WNV. Brazil has the largest herd of horses in Latin America and the third largest in the world. The total population is approximately 8 million head, equalling US$3.2 billion including herd management costs. Following the introduction of WNV vaccinations for horses in the United States, the incidence of neuroinvasive disease in horses decreased, suggesting that the WNV vaccination had a substantial impact on equine health. Our discussion proposes that Brazil has a low prevalence of WNV antibodies in equids, therefore, the vaccination of horses should be discussed from an economic standpoint with a model of free demand by the owners, as the cost-benefit of the vaccination may be greater than   that of treating the animals. Many questions regarding the potential for WNV spread in Brazil remain. The objective of this discussion was to address these questions by evaluating the importance of passive immunization in horses to prevent of a possible WNV outbreak in Brazil.a


Waleed A. Mazi is a Regional Director for Infection Prevention and Control, Taif – Saudi Arabia, and also worked in Philosophy of Medical Science, Clinical Microbiology in Sweden. He also Became Infection Prevention and Control Director, King Abdul Aziz Specialist Hospital – Taif, Saudi Arabia, and published many International articles on prevention of central line –associated bloodstream infection, WHO- Hand Hygiene implementation program, prevention sharp injuries in healthcare settings and molecular genotyping for epidemiological purposes and also participated in the Poster and oral presentations in many international conferences


Effective infection prevention and control programmes in hospitals are essential to prevent infections whenever possible. Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are the most adverse event threatening hospital patient safety worldwide. Many factors contribute to the risk of HAIs. Information resources are freely available from many national and international professional health agencies. We observed reduction of device healthcare associated infections after introduced Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) /Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) basic practice recommendations in acute care hospital.

To reduce and control of central line-associated bloodstream Infection (CLABSI), catheter associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) and ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) in acute care hospital.

A prospective study to reduce HAIs was conducted in tertiary hospital in 2012. Criteria and incidence rate of CLABSI, CAUTI and VAP were defined according to NHSN guidelines. Hand hygiene observation (HHO) was conducted using the WHO “My five moments” for hand hygiene recommendations. Prevention measures were implemented using SHEA/IDSA basic practice guidelines.

We observed significantly reduction of CLABSI, CAUTI and VAP after implementation SHEA/IDSA practice guidelines.

SHEA/IDSA basic practice guidelines are effective infection prevention model. The strategic plan steps were successfully targeted the goals. It is possible to achieve and maintain zero tolerance without any additional coast


Dr. Tomislav Kostyanev obtained his medical degree in Sofia, Bulgaria in 2007 and a specialty in medical microbiology at the Medical University of Sofia in 2012. He has also a second master degree in public health obtained in the same university. During his residency in microbiology, he worked as teaching assistant, teaching medical microbiology to students in medicine, pharmacy and dentistry. Since 2013, Dr. Kostyanev has been working in the Laboratory of Medical Microbiology at the University of Antwerp, Belgium as a full-time researcher in the COMBACTE project, an EU funded initiative which aims to develop clinical and laboratory network for clinical trials of anti-invectives in Europe. He is involved in several projects including studies on development of new antibiotics against carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. Dr. Kostyanev had several specializations and short-term research stays in France, Spain and the United Kingdom. His professional interests are in the field of antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic policy


Antibiotic resistance (ABR) has now been recognized as a global public health threat, causing at least 700,000 death cases every year. Therefore, it is essential that new and rapid solutions are found to effectively overcome the consequences of ABR. Many pharmaceutical companies have found difficulties to invest in antibiotic drug discovery and development in the last two decades, mainly because of low economic return of investment. The Innovative Medicines Initiative Joint undertaking (IMI JU) has addressed this issue by investing more than 660 million euro in seven projects clustered in the New Drugs for Bad Bugs programme. These projects encompass all aspects of drug development from basic science and drug discovery, through clinical development to new business models and responsible use of antibiotics.

The main objectives of the COMBACTE consortia are to deliver clinical trials in collaboration with pharmaceutical companies and to build clinical and laboratory networks to optimise scientific evaluation of new antimicrobials within Europe. The COMBACTE consortium now consists of 55 academic and 8 industrial partners and spreads in 42 countries, including more than 800 hospitals. The main objective of LAB-Net, one of the four pillars of COMBACTE, is to establish a European-wide network of laboratories that plays a key role in clinical trials on anti-infectives. By being part of LAB-Net, laboratories can benefit from training programmes and activities to build laboratory capacity and infrastructure.

One of the ultimate goal of COMBACTE is to evolve into a self-sustainable clinical trial infrastructure which will support trials of anti-infectives after the formal close-out of the IMI-funded programme. The vision of such a network would be to efficiently generate rigorous evidence for new or improved diagnosis, prevention and treatment of infections and to better respond to infectious disease threats. This would be facilitated by a European multidisciplinary clinical network and innovative research approaches.


Staffan P.E. Sylvan is a senior expert in infectious diseases and communicable disease control and prevention. He has been the county medical officer for Uppsala County, Sweden. As such he was the director of the local department of communicable disease control and prevention and was very active in undertaking campaigns concerning the containment of the spread of communicable diseases such as pandemic influenza, Chlamydia, HIV and hepatitis A, B and C. He has a long standing research career particularly in the area of hepatitis immunology. He has published more than 65 papers in reputed journals


Background: During the autumn 2015 the number of people seeking asylum in Sweden increased dramatically and region Jamtland/Harjedalen received over 3600 individuals. To give all these people a roof over their head it was necessary to increase the number of people living in each room, resulting in an overcrowded resident situation in some shelters comprising 1182 individuals.

There is an increased risk for rapid spread of novel strains of influenza A in confined environment, such as refugee shelters. Universal influenza vaccination is a strategy to improve prevention by increasing vaccination coverage (VC) and providing indirect protection of adults by decreasing infection and transmission among children.

Material and Methods: 5 refugee shelters were considered overcrowded, housing between 87 to 638 individuals each. Specially trained vaccination teams visited each shelter after written information in english, dari, pashto, amarinjo and arabic about influenza infection and influenza vaccination had been distributed among all asylum seekers. The vaccination was free of charge.

Results: VC among all refugees in age groups 0-65 years was 68 %. In comparison, the VC among the older general population (65 years or older) in our region (county 2) was 33 %, which was the 2nd lowest VC among 11 reporting counties in Sweden.

During the influenza season 2015/2016, 88 cases of influenza A and 29 cases of influenza B were reported in our region (population 127 169). Among these, 3 individuals with influenza A and 2 with influenza B were reported that belonged to the refugee cohort. These cases were reported before the implementation of the vaccination campaign among the overcrowded asylum seekers. After the introduction of the influenza vaccination campaign no case of influenza A and B or outbreaks of influenza was reported from the vaccinated shelters.

Conclusions: The high VC has probably had some impact on the spread of influenza and the burden of infection in the shelters. It is also possible that the high VC resulted in a protective effect for the unvaccinated individuals living in the shelters, as no case of influenza was reported from the shelters after the implementation of the vaccination campaign. This limited study also suggests that influenza vaccination free of charge, with easy access and preceded by direct adequate information regarding influenza and vaccination can result in an enhanced VC


Sitelbanat studied B. Pharm, M. Pharm (Pharmaceutical Microbiology) at  Faculty of Pharmacy,  University of Gezira - Sudan and PhD at China Pharmaceutical  University School of Life Science and technology 2016, awarded the prize of distinct scientific research (M. Pharm) entitled (Antimicrobial Activity of fifteen medicinal plants in Hospital air contaminants) by senate board University of Gezira, Sudan, June 2008 and awarded the best poster prize entitled (Pharmaco-dynamic of peptide HM-3 and its effect on HCT-116 tumor micro-environment) in the 5th World Congress on Cancer Therapy, Innovations and Novel Approaches in Diagnosis and Treatment of different Cancers, September/ 28-30/ 2015, Atlanta, USA and also awarded the Ideal Woman Prize (Medal), Sudanese Worker Women Union, Cycle (2012-2016), General Secretariat, Government of Sudan, Under Patronage of the Sudan Vice President, May 30rd2016. She is the Deputy Dean Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Gezira, Sudan since January/2017


Wound infections contribute significantly  to morbidity and mortality in surgically treated patients. Number of factors contributes to wound infection; however microorganisms are the major causes with bacteria being the most prevalent. Determination of local Bacterial sensitivity patterns to antibiotics is an important to provide a guide for an appropriate management. The present study was designed to investigate the susceptibility of etiological pathogens isolated from the Gezira Hospital for renal diseases and surgery, to different types of antimicrobial agents and the risk factors during the period between August and December 2015. The study followed prospective antimicrobial Agents

Case series for all patients admitted to the surgical wards during this period. The demographic data, diagnostic criteria, and laboratory data were collected. Out of the 200 patients recruited in the study (18%) showed evidence of sepsis yield infections. The predominant isolate was Staphylococcus aureus  which represent (31%) of the total isolated Bacteria. Cloxacillin exhibited the highest activity (87%) against Staph aureus while Cefotaxime, Co- trimoxazole and Cefalexin showed only (7%). In contrast to previous study reported that Staph aureus was 100% susceptible to Cefotaxime, this conflict may due to the production of β- lactamase or alternation of the target site with the decrease affinity to the drug and also the diabetic patients showed high incidence of wound infection compared with non diabetic. In conclusion, the rate of surgical site infection was relatively high and the predominant pathogen Staph aureus was highly susceptible to Cloxacillin and resistant to Cefixim.