Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 4th World Congress on Infection Prevention and Control ( 8 Keynotes, 2 Special sessions, 2 Days,1 Event) Valencia, Spain.

Day 1 :

Keynote Forum

Indira T Kudva

United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, USA

Keynote: Targeting reservoirs to control human infections: A one health approach

Time : 09:30-10:00

OMICS International Infection Control 2016 International Conference Keynote Speaker Indira T Kudva photo
Biography:

Indira T Kudva is a Research Microbiologist and Lead Scientist at the National Animal Disease Center, USDA, Ames, Iowa. She has received her BSc in Zoology and MSc in Medical Microbiology degrees from India, PhD in Microbiology, Molecular Biology and Biochemistry from the University of Idaho and trained as a Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Idaho, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School. She has over 25 years of experience in the field of microbiology, molecular biology and infectious diseases. She has 29 peer-reviewed publications, 3 invited reviews, 27 meeting abstracts, 18 invited talks, 8 funded grants and novel inventions (4 patent applications). She is also an adjunct Assistant Professor at the School of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University; the Executive Editor for the “Virulence Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogens” book, 5th Edition, ASM press and is on the Editorial Boards of the Applied and Environmental Microbiology (ASM press) and the SRL Proteomics and Bioinformatics (SciRes Literature) journals.

Abstract:

Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) cause hemorrhagic colitis and potentially fatal extra-intestinal sequelae, such as the hemolytic uremic syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in humans. Currently, treatment of human STEC disease is only symptomatic and supportive. Antibiotics are contraindicated owing to increased risk of sequelae; hence, diverse new STEC-specific management modalities are being investigated including those that that target STEC bacteria, interfere with Shiga toxin (Stx) binding, neutralize Stx, inhibit Stx trafficking, modulate /interfere with host cellular responses to Stx, effect homeostasis of host microbiota (probiotics), and virulence factor-based vaccines. Because ruminants (cattle and sheep) are primary STEC reservoirs, several preharvest control strategies to reduce pathogen load and prevent STEC entry into the food chain are being implemented. These include: Water treatment, dietary strategies, water and feed additives, animal treatments and management and transportation practices. However, these strategies have variable or limited efficacy owing to diverse hosts/environments maintaining STEC on farms, further emphasizing the need for control measures that can be consistently employed. Hence, we are employing host specific studies and pathogen-directed systems-based approaches towards the development of such novel STEC-targeted modalities. These include, elucidating the “interactome” of STEC and the squamous epithelial cells constituting the rectoanal junction (the site of persistence in cattle) and evaluating O157 proteins expressed in the rumen (first compartment of the ruminant stomach). Proteins contributing to cell adherence and rumen survival are being investigated for inclusion in novel anti-adhesion/colonization therapies.

Keynote Forum

P R Raghavan

Nanorx Inc, USA

Keynote: Controlling infectious diseases with MetadicholĀ®

Time : 10:00-10:30

OMICS International Infection Control 2016 International Conference Keynote Speaker P R Raghavan photo
Biography:

P R Raghavan is the CEO of Nanorx Inc, USA. He has completed his PhD in Organic Chemistry from Oregon State University (1979) and MS in Chemistry (1972) from IIT Mumbai, India. He has worked on drug discovery for over 25 years at Columbia University, Max-Planck Institute, Germany, Ciba-Geigy (now Novartis) and Boehringer Ingelheim’.

Abstract:

Metadichol® is a nano emulsion of long-chain alcohols found in many foods. It is commonly called Policosanol and is present in foods such as rice, sugar cane, wheat, peanuts Metadichol® acts on Nuclear Vitamin D receptors (VDR) that are present in cells throughout the body to stimulate the immune system and inhibit a variety of disease processes, resulting from viral, bacterial and parasitic infections. Gene expression analysis will be presented. We tested Metadichol® in vitro against viruses and also against malaria, Tb and MRSA. It is the first of a class of unique nano emulsion molecules that are active against viruses, bacteria and parasites. In assays, Metadichol® showed no cytotoxicity and strongly inhibited cell death caused by each of the pathogen tested. Metadichol® is a safe and effective inhibitor of various pathogens in humans. Because it consists of natural components of common foods and has no known negative side effects, Metadichol® has the potential to serve as a novel, broad-spectrum antiviral treatment for viruses, bacteria and parasites that confront public health today.

Keynote Forum

Stef Stienstra

Dutch Armed Forces/Royal Dutch Navy, Netherlands

Keynote: Drug delivery by tattooing to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis

Time : 10:30-11:00

OMICS International Infection Control 2016 International Conference Keynote Speaker Stef Stienstra photo
Biography:

Stef Stienstra is a strategic and creative Consultant in Biomedical Science with a parallel career as a Commander of the Reserve of the Royal Dutch Navy. For the Dutch Armed Forces he has responsibility for the counter measures in CBNRe threats and (medical) consequence management both in a military and a civilian (terrorism) setting. In his civil career he works internationally as a Consultant or as Scientific Supervisory Board Member for several medical and biotech companies, merely involved in biodefense. He is also a Visiting Professor for Punjab University in Pakistan and Rhein-Waal University in Germany. He has completed his studies in Medicine and in Biochemistry at the University of Groningen in Netherlands and has extensive practical experience in cell biology, immuno-hematology, biodefense and transfusion medicine.

Abstract:

Background: Leishmaniasis is a vector borne disease that is caused by obligate intra macrophage protozoa of the Leishmania species. Leishmaniasis can cause different clinical syndromes including cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), in which the patient generally presents with one or several ulcers or nodules on the skin, resulting from the infection of phagocytic cells located in the dermis. It often results into severe scar tissue in the skin. Most of the twelve million people infected with Leishmania worldwide are CL cases and 1.5 million new cases occur annually.

Objective: WHO has a program to develop new treatments for cutaneous leishmaniasis. This study establishes a proof of concept that a tattoo device can target intra dermal drug delivery against cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL).

Methods: The selected drug is oleylphosphocholine (OlPC) formulated as liposomes, particles known to be prone to macrophage ingestion. First it is shown that treatment of cultured Leishmania infected macrophages with OlPC liposomes results in a direct dose dependent killing of intracellular parasites. Based on this, in vivo efficacy is demonstrated using a 10 day tattooing mediated treatment in mice infected with L. major and L. mexicana. In both models this regimen results in rapid clinical recovery with complete regression of skin lesions by Day 28. Parasite counts and histopathology examination confirm high treatment efficacy at the parasitic level. Low amount of drug required for tattooing combined with fast clinical recovery may have a positive impact on CL patient management.

Results: This first example of tattoo mediated drug delivery could open to new therapeutic interventions in the treatment of skin diseases. This study demonstrates that the use of a tattoo instrument for drug delivery is possible in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis and that this method can successfully eliminate intracellular parasites at the site of infection. After showing that the selected drug oleylphosphocholine (OlPC) formulated as liposomes could efficiently reach intracellular parasites when in contact with infected macrophages, the activity of the drug was compared in vivo in mouse models of Old (L. major) and New World (L. mexicana) leishmaniasis. Three routes of administrations of the same drug formulation were investigated: Systemic (IP) administration, topical administration as a drop and administration via the tattoo instrument. Evaluation parameters included clinical (lesion sizes) and parasitological parameters (burdens) using quantitative and qualitative methods. In all experiments, the tattooing delivery procedure was the most efficacious at both the clinical and parasitological levels.

Limitations: The used tattoo device, used routinely for permanent makeup procedures is not yet optimal for quantitative drug delivery.

Break: Coffee Break 11:00-11:15 @ Foyer Business Center

Keynote Forum

Lia Monica Junie

University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Romania

Keynote: Polymerase chain reaction in the detection of the methicillin-resistant staphylococci

Time : 11:15-11:45

OMICS International Infection Control 2016 International Conference Keynote Speaker Lia Monica Junie  photo
Biography:

Lia Monica Junie is an MD, Ph D, Professor, Head Microbiology Department, "Iuliu Hatieganu" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj Napoca, Romania. She is a Coordinator of resident doctor’s in the Laboratory Medicine specialty and Leadership PhD doctor’s thesis in Medicine field. She is a Board Member of European professional Societies ESCMID (ESGCP Study Groups), Society of Chemotherapy, Scientia Parasitologica Pro Vita and is a Reviewer of international reviews, Member of International organizations, Director/Coordinator in research projects. She has more than 63 papers published in full in international journals and is an editorial board member of national reviews. She is an Organizer/President, Keynote, Invited Speaker and Chair of International and National Congresses.

 

Abstract:

Background: Methicillin resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were identified shortly upon the introduction of methicillin into the clinical practice. Rapid detection of MRSA is desirable.

 

Methods: S. aureus strains were isolated from hospitalized patients, including intensive care wards and other units. The identification of the S. aureus strains was made by phenotypic methods and automated methods (Vitek2Compact BioMerieux). The MecA gene of the clinical isolates detection has been unfold by PCR. The PBP2’ latex agglutination test, Cefoxitin E-test and Oxacillin MIC as phenotypic methods of MRSA detection are evaluated and compared with the mecA detection by PCR, as the standard method to identify the  MRSA strains.

 

Results: 57.5% of the isolated strains from different pathological products were MRSA and 42.5% were MSSA. The PBP2’ latex agglutination test detected PBP2a in 55.3% of the tested strains leading to a sensitivity of 96.3% using mec A gene detection. Most of the MRSA isolates were multi-resistant to antibiotics, being resistant to b-lactamins, Aminoglycosides, Macrolides and Ciprofloxacin.

 

Conclusions: Molecular methods which detect the mecA gene are replacing the Oxacillin MIC method as the reference one. The comparison of the phenotypic methods with PCR reveals that among the first of them, PBP2a latex has a high sensitivity (97.9%), being used as an alternative phenotypic method for the MRSA detection. Following the resistance profiles of the strains, identified by these methods, we observe the existence among them of some different clones that reveal the importance of the correct identification of the MRSA strains for the infection therapy and its prophylaxis.

Break: Special Session 11:45-12:45 @ Melia Meeting 3
  • Track 01: Treatment for Infections
    Track 02: Infection Prevention, Control and Cure
    Track 03: Hand Hygiene/ Hand Washing and Cleanliness
    Track 09: Antimicrobial/ Antibiotic/ Antibacterial Stewardship
    Track 17: Types of Infections
    Track 18: Causes and Symptoms of Infections
    Track 22: Immunology of Infections
    Track 24: Epidemiology of Emerging and Re-Emerging Infections
Speaker

Chair

Indira T Kudva

United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, USA

Speaker

Co-Chair

Palayakotai Raghavan

Nanorx Inc, USA

Session Introduction

Elias Tannous

Cleveland Clinic, UAE

Title: Infection control: The science of a profession

Time : 11:45-12:15

Speaker
Biography:

Elias Tannous is an infection control professional with more than 20 years experience in the healthcare setting. He holds degree in Nursing from the French Ministry of Health and from Saint Joseph University in Lebanon, degrees in Business Administrations and Human Resource/Personnel Management from UK and Certified Board in Infection Control, USA since 2008. He has coordinated, co-directed and facilitated loads of IC educational activities and has been heavily involved in major infection control activities, projects and programs for the past 10 years, including commissioning of new facilities, developing surveillance programs and evaluating IC programs.

Abstract:

Trees are composed of roots, a trunk and branches. Similarly, in the infection control practice, the roots of the infection control professionals represent the background of these professionals, their values and the studies related to their profession. The crown of a tree is made up of the leaves and branches at the top of that tree. Likewise in the infection control profession this represent the daily activities of an infection control professional i.e., identification of infectious disease process, conducting epidemiological studies, controlling transmission of infectious agents, etc. The trunk of the tree provides its shape and support and holds up the crown. The trunk transports water and nutrients from the soil and sugar from the leaves. In infection control, the trunk represent the link between the theory and in practice, it represents an important element to minimize the theory, practice gap in infection control and has an integral part in holding the workload of an infection control practitioner. Photosynthesis in infection control practice represents the interaction of these professionals with other healthcare workers, coaching them and adding shared values with them to prevent infections. To conclude, a successful infection control professional consists of a mixture between theoretical and practical skills coupled with a trunk that is solid and conducive. This paper summarizes the essential combination of savoir, savoir etre and savoir faire to successfully assume the role of an infection control professional.

Stef Stienstra

Dutch Armed Forces/Royal Dutch Navy, Netherlands

Title: Managing bio-threat information under the WHO international health regulations of biosecurity

Time : 12:15-12:45

Speaker
Biography:

Stef Stienstra is a strategic and creative Consultant in Biomedical Science with a parallel career as a Commander of the Reserve of the Royal Dutch Navy. For the Dutch Armed Forces he has responsibility for the counter measures in CBNRe threats and (medical) consequence management both in a military and a civilian (terrorism) setting. In his civil career he works internationally as a Consultant or as Scientific Supervisory Board Member for several medical and biotech companies, merely involved in biodefense. He is also a Visiting Professor for Punjab University in Pakistan and Rhein-Waal University in Germany. He has completed his studies in Medicine and in Biochemistry at the University of Groningen in Netherlands and has extensive practical experience in cell biology, immuno-hematology, biodefense and transfusion medicine.

Abstract:

Sharing security threat information is a challenge for governments and their agencies. Especially in biotechnology and microbiology the agencies do not know how to classify or to disclose collected information on potential bio-threats. There is vague border between man-made and natural biological threats. An example is the several month delay of the publication of research on the transmissibility of H5N1 avian influenza virus in the leading scientific journal Science by researchers of the Erasmus Medical Centre in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. The publication was delayed in 2012 by several months due to the fact that various organizations first wanted to investigate whether the details could be misused by malicious individuals. In the study the researchers show that only a small number of mutations were necessary to change the H5N1 virus so that it can spread through the respiratory system between mammals. This implies that the risk of a H5N1 pandemic cannot be ruled out. On the other hand, this information can be used to develop new therapies and/or vaccines for influenza. It gives also insight into the disease mechanism, which helps in the prevention. The same arguments are valid for therapeutic antibodies, like the antibodies, which are developed to treat anthrax. They have an extreme high affinity for the lethal factors of the bacterium and stop the disease but the same antibodies could be misused to select the most pathogenic strains. Micro-organisms have from nature itself the capacity to reorganize and change their pathogenicity, which could lead to a pandemic spread of a disease. But if the disease is too infectious and too deadly, like some stains of Ebola Virus are, the lethality will be locally limited. But if the incubation time is longer in a certain strain of an Ebola virus, the risks on epidemics and even a pandemic is much higher. The knowledge of these natural mutation mechanisms could be misused to weaponize micro-organisms. It enables the engineering of the lethality like it is done with some anthrax strains. Are these laboratory techniques considered as public science or should it be classified? Academics want to publish and to share information for the progress of science and to find useful applications. The Rotterdam scientists were really annoyed when their research was blocked for publication and feared that other groups would be first in publishing a part of their obtained experimental results. Biosafety is already common practice in microbiology but biosecurity is often still questionable. A ‘Code of Conduct’, like the Dutch Academy of Science has developed, would help; especially for the so-called insider risk. Educational programs for the identification and assessment of risks and threats to security have to be developed to give scientists bio-threat awareness and for government officials to rationalize the real threat, without damaging the progress of science.

Speaker
Biography:

Stephanie Fresnay is a Postdoctoral Fellow in the Cellular Immunology Section of the Center for Vaccine Development at the University of Maryland, USA. She is a Co-Investigator for the clinical trial entitled “Understanding Typhoid Disease: Development of a Salmonella Typhi Challenge Model in Healthy Adults” and has published in the Journal of Translational Medicine. She is also the co-author of several papers investigating regulatory T cells and antigen presenting cells function after challenge with wild-type S. Typhi as well as the co-author of a study characterizing S. Typhi, S. Paratyphi A and S. Paratyphi B cross-reactive CD4+ T cell responses elicited following vaccination.

Abstract:

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is a human restricted pathogen which causes significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. A better understanding of the immune responses which result in protection from S. Typhi infection is imperative for the development of improved attenuated vaccines. Recently, a controlled human infection model was re-established in which participants received ~104 cfu wild-type S. Typhi (Quailes strain) orally. 20 participants were evaluated for their cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses. Ex vivo PBMC isolated before and up to 28 days after challenge were exposed to 3 S. Typhi-infected targets, i.e., autologous B lymphoblastoid cell-lines (B-LCL), autologous blasts and HLA-E restricted AEH B-LCL cells. CMI responses were evaluated using 14-color multiparametric flow cytometry to detect simultaneously 5 intracellular cytokines/chemokines (i.e., IL-17A, IL-2, IFN-g, TNF-a and MIP-1b) and a marker of degranulation/cytotoxic activity (CD107a) in distinct T cell memory subsets. Pre-challenge production of IFN-g, TNF-α and MIP-1β by S. Typhi-specific CD8+ multifunctional T effector memory (TEM) following exposure to S. Typhi-infected targets were higher in most participants who develop infection. Early decreases were observed in both S. Typhi-specific integrin a4b7-and integrin a4b7+CD8+ TEM cells after challenge, suggesting a potential for these cells to home to mucosal, as well as to extra-intestinal sites. Higher baseline S. Typhi-specific CD8+ TEM responses also correlated with delayed typhoid diagnosis. No changes in these responses were found in NoTD participants after challenge. These studies demonstrate that S. Typhi-specific CD8+ baseline responses correlate with clinical outcome in humans challenged with wild-type S. Typhi, and provide novel insights into the protective immune responses against typhoid disease that will aid in the selection and development of new vaccine candidates.

Speaker
Biography:

G Tellez is affiliated to the University of Arkansas, USA.

Abstract:

Bacterial antimicrobial resistance in both the medical and agricultural fields has become a serious problem worldwide. During the last 15 years, our laboratories have worked toward the identification of probiotic candidates for poultry which can actually displace Salmonella and other enteric pathogens which have colonized the gastrointestinal tract of chicks and turkeys, indicating that selection of therapeutically efficacious probiotic cultures with marked performance benefits in poultry is possible and that defined cultures can sometimes provide an attractive alternative to conventional antimicrobial therapy. Our studies have been focused on specific pathogen reduction, performance under commercial conditions and effects on both idiopathic and defined enteritis. We have also confirmed that selected heat-resistant spore-forming Bacillus species can markedly reduce Salmonella and Clostridium when administered in very high numbers and we have developed a novel and simple technique for obtaining cultured Bacillus spore counts, providing a cost-effective feed-stable inclusion in commercial poultry diets. In order to select even more effective isolates, we are still currently focused on the mechanistic action of the Lactobacillus probiotic previously developed as well as new Bacillus candidates. Current indications are that mechanism of action involves rapid activation of innate host immune mechanisms, providing an exciting possibility for identification of vastly superior and more potent probiotics. In this presentation, we summarize the safety and efficacy of individual monocultures for prophylactic and/or therapeutic efficacy against Salmonella infections under both laboratory and field conditions as well as the development of a novel, cost-effective, feed-stable direct fed microbials (DFM) with potential for widespread utilization and improved production, delivery and clinical efficacy for animal use.

Break: Lunch Break 13:35-14:35 @ Restaurant Aqua

Exhibitor Demonstration 14:35-15:00
Speaker
Biography:

Alaa Badawi is affiliated to the Public Health Agency of Canada, Canada.

Abstract:

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is associated with life threatening severe illnesses and a mortality rate of ~35%, particularly in patients with underlying comorbidities. Systematic analysis of 637 MERS-CoV cases suggests that diabetes and hypertension are equally prevalent in ~50% of the patients. Cardiac diseases and obesity are present, respectively in 30% and 16% of the cases. These conditions down-regulate the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines and impair the host's innate and humoral immune systems. In conclusion, the protection against MERS-CoV and other respiratory infections can be improved if public health vaccination strategies are tailored to target persons with chronic disorders.

Speaker
Biography:

John Gammon is the Deputy Head of the College of Human and Health Sciences at Swansea University and trained as a Nurse at Westminster Hospital London. He is a Non-Executive Director of a Local NHS Health Board. His expertise is in infection prevention and control, working in practice as a Specialist Nurse for many years. His PhD examined coping strategies and mediating factors for individuals in source isolation. His research interests include isolation strategies and the psychological effects, hand hygiene and behavioral theory to improve infection prevention compliance.

Abstract:

Wet hands are an infection risk, increasing the potential for cross infection as well as the harm to the skin condition of healthcare practitioners. This presentation examines the infection risk associated with wet hands, efficacy research of different drying and the impact on the safe clinical care. Current research and practice recommendations concentrate on hand washing, compliance rates and the efficacy of different interventions to improve hand washing. However, there is a noticeable neglect of hand drying practice which fails to recognize its importance in the prevention and control of infection. There is recognition that hand drying is of equal importance to hand washing, that there is a lack of compliance amongst practitioners and that the efficacy of different methods varies. This presentation argues that the effectiveness of the drying technique and method is neglected area of practice and research; however it has grown in importance in more recent years with a number of studies recently being published. The presentation examines a number of published international studies, which evaluate the efficacy of different methods in clinical areas. The presentation notes that despite this evidence, research needs to focus and evaluate the efficacy the methods and extent of drying by practitioners within the clinical environment. We need to give greater emphasis to the equal importance of hand drying when we consider hand hygiene in the clinical context. We must accept that patient safety is put at risk when we fail to dry our hands.

Speaker
Biography:

Lucy J Bock has completed her BSc in Biology at the University of Newcastle, UK in 2004 and her PhD in Molecular Medicine in 2010 at the European Institute of Oncology and the University of Milan, Italy. Since then she has worked for Public Health England publishing on projects ranging from automatic washer-disinfector and hydrogen peroxide room-decontamination indicators to biocide resistance of Gram negative pathogens. Her current interest is in the cross resistance of Gram negative bacteria to cationic biocides and antibiotics.

Abstract:

Control of multi-drug resistant (MDR) organisms relies increasingly on the use of biocides to limit the risk of infection. Clinical strains of Gram negative MDR organisms have been shown to adapt to increased levels of biocides. We aim to define the stable mechanisms of resistance that allow these strains to adapt to commonly use cationic biocides (e.g., chlorhexidine). Using established adaptation protocols, whole genome sequencing, gene expression analysis and efflux assays, we investigate the mechanisms of resistance in clinical isolates. Resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates to chlorhexidine formulations varies vastly depending on the strain and formulation, some strains not being killed by 50% working concentration of chlorhexidine formulations. K. pneumoniae strains adapted to chlorhexidine show increased resistance to formulations, though this can be reduced by additional ingredients in the formulation. Cross resistance to the last resort antibiotic colistin was found in five out of six adapted strains. Stable mutations in the two component regulator phoPQ and/or a putative tet repressor gene (smvR), adjacent to the MFS family efflux pump smvA, were found in all adapted K. pneumoniae strains. Currently data on adaptation to further cationic compounds in Gram negative MDR pathogens is being generated, showing that some resistance mechanisms are conserved between species, whereas others are unique. Resistance mechanisms vary depending on the compound, but several overlap with many of them associated with efflux pumps and/or membrane modification pathways. To avoid potential breakdown of infection control due to emergence of resistance mechanisms, the careful use of biocides in the healthcare environment is therefore required.

Break: Coffee Break 16:15-16:30 @ Foyer Business Center
Speaker
Biography:

Mona Schousboe is employed by Canterbury District Health Board (DHB), one of the largest DHB in New Zealand. She is a qualified Medical Microbiologist (FRCPA) and work in this capacity in the DHB’s laboratory, Canterbury Health Laboratories. She is also a Clinical Director of the CDHB Infection Prevention and Control Service. She has obtained Master of Public Health with a Thesis “Governance, Management and Professional Influences on Infection Control in Canterbury Public Hospitals 1978-2008”. She has special interest in management of urinary catheterized patients with spinal injuries.

Abstract:

Introduction: Antimicrobial stewardship, a concept developed due to increasing antibiotic resistance, involves issuing guidelines, assistance from microbiology laboratories in limiting reporting and policing by pharmacy on the use of antibiotics. The success of antimicrobial stewardship is difficult to measure. Presented here is the management of antibiotic use, prevention of urinary sepsis and organisms’ resistance in a Spinal Injury Unit (SIU) in New Zealand. A half hour weekly meeting is held between medical, nursing, pharmacy and IC&P staff with the aim of preventing urinary sepsis as a consequence of planned urological interventions. Urine samples are collected weekly and cultured with identification of all bacteria and antibiotic susceptibilities carried out monthly or as new strains are identified.

Aim: To research the benefit of preventative urine management by comparing susceptibilities in the SIU over a 10 year period with those of the District Health Boards (DHB) Annual Antibiotic Susceptibilities.

Methods & Material: Compare antibiotic susceptibilities from laboratory records reported on SIU catheterized patients’ urine isolates for six out of ten years between 2005 and 2015 with annual summaries of all DHB’s hospital bacterial susceptibilities over the same periods.

Results: The annual susceptibilities of routine urinary antibiotics to most of the urinary pathogens in the SIU patients were equal to or only slightly lower than the Annual Antibiotic Susceptibilities for all the DHB’s bacterial isolates with exception of P. aeruginosa.

Conclusion: The effect of antimicrobial stewardship can be demonstrated and measured in catheterized patients with the help of regular detailed urine results and a preventative approach to management and thus avoid the use of empiric antibiotic treatment. The focus was to render the bladder free of bacteria during interventions which increase the intravesical pressure. Nitrofurantoin was the most frequently urinary antiseptic used.

Speaker
Biography:

Aaron Lawson is a graduate of Ulster University with a Bachelor of Science in Environmental Health and the Diploma of Professional Practice with commendation. He has a keen interest and understanding of environmental health, particularly in relation to public health, health and safety in the workplace and creating a better environment for the future. He is currently undertaking PhD in Public Health and Epidemiology at Ulster University.

Abstract:

Hygiene-related communicable diseases result in millions of deaths each year across the globe. Good hand hygiene practice is recognized as one of the most effective methods in preventing the spread of hygiene-related communicable diseases from person to person. Most of the studies carried out on hand hygiene practice and compliance has focused on the healthcare sector and has found that compliance is often poor. Few studies have looked at the public’s knowledge and awareness of good hand hygiene as a simple measure in the prevention of the spread of communicable diseases. This study is a systematic review of peer-reviewed, published studies that focused on hand hygiene knowledge and compliance by the general public. An online search of the SCOPUS database using the keywords “hand hygiene”, “hand washing”, “public” and “knowledge” with exclusion criteria keywords “healthcare”, “hospital” and “nursing”, yielded 270 initial document results ranging from 1981 to 2016. From these 38 were included in the final review. The majority of the studies were carried out in less-developed countries particularly in Africa and the Middle-East. Schools and colleges emerged as the predominant locations used for most of the studies followed by food businesses. The systematic review concludes that there is a gap between knowledge and practice. Good education and tailored interventions were identified as key factors in improving hand hygiene practice and compliance within a target population, however further research is needed to determine the lasting impact.

Speaker
Biography:

Carla M A Pinto is an Adjunct Professor at School of Engineering, Polytechnic of Porto, since December 1997. She is a Researcher at Center for Mathematics of the University of Porto, since 2003. She has completed her PhD degree in Mathematics in 2004. Her current research fields involve the study of epidemiological models for several diseases, namely HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, amongst others. She also studies coupled nonlinear dynamical systems, considering fractional and integer derivatives using bifurcation theory and symmetry techniques. She has authored/co-authored a large number of research papers, published in reputed international journals and international conferences. She has been serving as an Editorial Board Member of several journals. She is the Sub-Director of the Department of Mathematics since 2012.

Abstract:

Low levels of viral load are found in HIV infected patients, after many years under successful suppressive anti-retroviral therapy (ART). The factors leading to this persistence are still under debate but it is now more or less accepted that the latent reservoir may be crucial to the maintenance of this residual viremia. In this talk, we focus on the role of the latent reservoir in the persistence of the latent reservoir and of the plasma viremia in a fractional order (FO) model for HIV infection. The proposed model provides new insights on the role of the latent reservoir in the persistence of the latent reservoir and of the plasma virus. To our best knowledge, this is the first FO model that deals with the role of the latent reservoir in the persistence of low levels of viremia and of the latent reservoir.

Jack Ho Wong and Tzi Bun N G

The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

Title: Lactoferrin is a natural killer of Candida spp.

Time : 17:45-18:10

Speaker
Biography:

Jack Ho Wong has completed his PhD at the Chinese University of Hong Kong and currently is a Research Associate at the School of Biomedical Sciences. He is working on bioactive peptides emphasized on antimicrobial and anticancer effect. He has published more than 100 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an Editorial Board Member in the journals Toxins, Frontiers in Microbiology and Frontiers in Pharmacology and he is a manuscript Reviewer for several journals.

Abstract:

Lactoferrin is an iron-binding protein in milk. It plays an important role in the host defense system as it prevents microbes from growing and forming biofilms. In addition to antimicrobial activity, lactoferrin exhibits some anticancer activities. Lactoferricin (Lfcin) and lactoferrampin (Lfampin), which are peptides derived from lactoferrin, demonstrated antimicrobial activity with promising prospects and are currently one of the research focuses. We investigated the antifungal effect of these two peptides. We found that fungal cells exposed to Lfcin manifested morphological alterations, changes in plasma membrane permeability and mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS accumulation in cells. Lfcin also suppressed superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3) expression in the fungal cells. Lfampin exerted its antifungal effect mainly through induction of necrosis. It also induced changes in plasma membrane permeability and mitochondrial membrane potential. We also tested the effects of the following combinations (1) Lfcin and Lfampin (2) The Lfcin and Fluconazole and (3) Lfampin and Fluconazole against Candida spp.

Speaker
Biography:

Nasim Mohamad Alsebai is a Pediatric Surgeon, Anatomist, Researcher and Lecturer. Nasim has graduated from Faculty of Medicine, Aleppo University and did Pediatric Surgery Residency Training in Syria from Aleppo University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine where Nasim obtained Master’s degree in Surgery-Pediatric Surgery followed by Master of Science degree in Human Anatomy from the Anatomy Department, Aleppo University. Nasim is currently working as an Anatomy Lecturer in the College of Medical & Health Sciences in Emirates College of Technology, Abu Dhabi. Nasim is actively involved in clinical research and academic publications.

 

Abstract:

Perforated appendicitis in children continues to be associated with significant morbidity. In 2012, a treatment algorithm was begun at the authors' institution, which included immediate appendectomy, antibiotic irrigation of the peritoneal cavity, trans-peritoneal drainage through the wound and 10-day treatment with intravenous ampicillin, clindamycin and gentamicin. Initial results with this scheme in 27 patients demonstrated a 7.7% incidence of major complications and no deaths. From 2012 through 2016, the authors continued to use this treatment plan in all patients with perforated appendicitis. 73 patients with perforated appendicitis were treated and the rate of major complications was 6.4%. Infectious complications occurred in 18 patients (4.8%) and included intra-abdominal abscesses (2 patients, 1.3%), phlegmon treated with an extended course of antibiotics (2 patients, 1.6%), wound infections (5 patients, 1.3%) and entero-cutaneous fistula requiring further operations (2 patients, 0.5%). There were six cases of small bowel obstruction (1.6%), which required operative intervention. There were no deaths. The average length of stay of all patients was 11.4 days (range, 8 to 66 days). Utilization of trans-peritoneal drainage and choice of antibiotic therapy continue to be sources of controversy in the surgical literature. However, the treatment plan used in the present study resulted in the lowest complication rate reported to date and the authors conclude that this scheme in truly the “gold standard” for treatment of perforated appendicitis. New treatment plans using laparoscopic appendectomy, different or shorter courses of antibiotics or not using drain should have complication rates that are as low as or lower than this one to be considered as useful alternatives.